Chapter 5.  Promoting International Activities

Basic Direction

 Global conservation is a problem common to all of humanity and it 
cannot be resolved by one country acting alone.  Japan must contribute 
to this international effort in a manner suitable to its position in the 
international community.  
 Accordingly, the government must ensure internationally cooperative 
measures.  It must promote cooperation toward conserving the 
environments of developing regions and internationally valuable ones.  
To promote international cooperation, the Government must prepare the 
domestic basis.  It must guarantee international cooperation in research,
 observation and monitoring and it must encourage activities by local 
governments and private organizations.  Furthermore, even when enacting 
measures for international cooperation,  the government must remember to 
show deference to the environment.

Section 1.  Promoting International Cooperation for Global Conservation

1.  Securing International Coordination of Policy
 To conserve the global environment, it is essential to coordinate 
international measures in addition to implementing them domestically.  

A. The government shall abide by environmental treaties and other 
bilateral and international agreements.  It shall, likewise, play an 
active role in creating new policy frameworks. 
B. To implement the UNCED resolutions, the government shall support the 
environmental activities of the United Nations.  It shall actively 
participate in discussions on matters of global importance for example, 
developmental assistance and the environment, innovative technology 
development, monetary mechanisms, global change research, trade and the 
environment and evaluating economic measures.
C. International organizations play an important role in providing 
financial support to promote world conservation.  As such, these 
organizations should confirm that development projects are giving 
sufficient consideration to the environment.  They should also verify 
that global environmental conservation projects are provided with 
adequate funding.  The government shall promote active participation in 
ensuring that the Global Environment Facility ("GEF"), which is a major 
fund established to tackle global problems is managed effectively and 
D. Japan shall work with other countries and international organizations 
to save the global environment.  In particular, Japan shall play a 
leading role in promoting cohesive measures and their implementation in 
the Asian-Pacific since Japan has both historical and geographical ties 
to the region.  This region is expected to experience phenomenal growth. 
 Consequently, this implies that  the area will inflict tremendous 
burdens on the environment.  Japan shall strive to control these burdens 
by promoting conservation measures.

2.  Conserving the Environment in Developing Regions
 Conservation in developing countries is an international problem.  Both 
developed and developing nations must get involved.  It is necessary for 
developed countries to promote international assistance to developing 
countries in the areas of population, resources, development and 
environmental problems.  Japan shall help developing countries help 
themselves in securing a safe balance between the environment and 
development.  Likewise, Japan shall promote international cooperation in 
environmental conservation.

2.1. Policy Discussion
 The international community uniformly believes that sustainable growth 
must be achieved and that developed countries must join the effort to 
conserve the environment.  To ensure coordination in these endeavors, 
close policy discussions shall be promoted.

2.2. Effective Assistance
 The government shall coordinate and regulate foreign assistance in a 
manner thought best suited to achieve designated results.  Types shall 
range from loans and grants, to technical assistance.  Likewise, 
official development assistance ("ODA") for environmental efforts shall 
be expanded in accordance with UNCED declarations and the Outline of 
Basic Principles and Ideas of Official Development Assistance.  The 
government shall offer ODA in a flexible manner to encourage developing 
countries to establish a safe balance between the economy and 
environment.  It shall strive to coordinate its efforts with those of 
other developed countries, the United Nations, international financial 
organizations, local governments and private organizations.

Japanese statement at the UNCED on official development assistance, June 
 Japan shall seek to expand bilateral and multilateral official 
development assistance from 900 billion to 1 trillion yen by for 5 
fiscal years from 1992.

2.3. Technology Transfer
 Japan developed many new technologies and know-how in the process of 
overcoming the severe pollution problems of the past.  Japan must make 
the most of these experiences by using them to help developing countries 
facing similar problems to clean and conserve their environments.  
Experts shall be dispatched, foreign researchers shall be received and 
joint research shall be promoted to pass on the fruits of these 
experiences.  The government shall strive to improve transfers of 
environmental technology and know-how.  This transfer assistance shall 
be tailored to the particular country's stage of development in a manner 
that will allow them to utilize their own technologies and know-how.  
The technology of the public and private sectors shall be fully utilized 
as well.  Furthermore, the government shall support voluntary 
technological cooperation between Japanese civic organizations and those 
of developing countries.  

2.4. Research in Developing Regions
 Research, policy studies and ODA effectiveness evaluations shall be 
promoted in developing countries.  Environmentally oriented ODA shall be 
distributed to regions and countries in a manner suitable to the results 
of these studies.  

2.5. Selecting and Evaluating Projects
 Extensive investigations and full cooperation are needed to ensure that 
proper projects are selected.  Likewise, project evaluations shall be 
promoted to ensure that they are contributing to the cooperative efforts.

3.  Conserving Internationally Valuable Environments
 Certain environments are extremely valuable internationally and are 
considered the common birth-right or heritage to all of humanity.  For 
example, to conserve Antarctica, the Protocol on Conserving the 
Antarctic Environment Treaty shall be observed.  International 
cooperation shall be promoted to assess environmental impact, conserve 
plants and wildlife, manage waste disposal, prevent ocean pollution and 
administer conserved areas.  Moreover, through contributions to the 
World Heritage Fund, the government shall actively cooperate to conserve 
natural heritage areas designated in the Convention for the Protection 
of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage.

4. Strengthening the Domestic Foundations to Promote Cooperation
 The government shall lay a domestic groundwork that will ensure the 
most effective application of its technology, know-how and experience to 
promote international cooperation.  

4.1. Human Resources
 Human resources are necessary to cooperate internationally.  The 
government shall continue to promote the employment of people currently 
working in fields related to international cooperation.  It shall 
establish systems for training and a registry system for specialists in 
international affairs.  Likewise, efforts shall be made to employ 
international specialists on their return from duty abroad.  

4.2. Facilities
 Information on global conservation, technology and environmental 
experiences shall be collected domestically and sorted.  Facilities 
shall be established to allow easy technological transfer and storage 
which will contribute in conserving the global environment.

Section 2  International Cooperation in Research, Observation and 

 International networks, joint international research and research 
exchanges shall be promoted to encourage cooperation in research, 
observation and monitoring for global environmental conservation.

Section 3.  Encouraging Activities of Local Governments and Private 

 International cooperation in environmental conservation shall be 
improved by encouraging activities. by local governments and private 
organizations  Local governments have much to offer similarly situated 
foreign cities in the form of environmental conservation information.  
Likewise, private organization cooperation can be very effective on the 
grassroots level.  The government shall encourage the voluntary efforts 
of local governments to form sister-city relationships and self-
governing international cooperation organizations.  Also, information 
shall be provided to private organizations to encourage their active 
participation in international cooperation.

Section 4.  Environmental Considerations in International Cooperation

 It is necessary for Japan to give the environment appropriate 
consideration in international cooperation.  It is important for the 
business community with overseas operations to do the same.  The 
government shall promote continued voluntary civil actions to ensure 
that these considerations are made.  
 The government shall continue to employ environmental guidelines when 
cooperating in international projects on the national level.  It shall 
begin human resource training as a means of ensuring the environment is 
given due consideration.  And, while cooperating with international 
organizations, appropriate concern shall be shown to the environment.  
Furthermore, the government shall strive to ensure that the same concern 
is shown in international assistance from other public sources and 
overseas activities of private enterprises.

Section 5.  Efforts Based on International Agreements

1. Preventing Global Warming
 The Government shall implement the United Nations Framework Convention 
on Climate Change,  including national communications on measures and 
procedures to arrest global warming and their predicted effects. To 
further promote measures with international cooperation, we will also 
explore specific measures for the evaluation of the adequacy of the 
commitment of the Convention in relation to its ultimate objectives, the 
ways to coordinate international efforts for reducing world total 
emissions of greenhouse gases and enhancing their absorption, including 
joint implementation of policies.  The Government shall simultaneously 
support the scientific activities of the IPCC and other organizations.  
Furthermore, measures shall be implemented for international cooperation 
to alter current consumption patterns, to develop technologies to 
alleviate climate change, to assist developing countries to formulate 
national plans, and to assist technology transfer 

2. Protecting the Ozone Layer
 The Government shall steadily implement Vienna Convention for the 
Protection of the Ozone Layer and the Montreal Protocol on Substances 
That Deplete the Ozone Layer. We shall also support the measures 
implemented by developing countries. Moreover, Japan shall contribute to 
the implementation of the international measures through enrichment of 
scientific knowledge by observation, monitoring, etc.

3. Preventing Acid Rain
 Both regional and international efforts are essential to combat acid 
rain.  Observation and monitoring networks shall be established.  As in 
North America and Europe, Japan will take the lead in promoting a 
framework for combating transboundary pollution problems in East Asia. 
We will also promote measures including technology transfer to control 
the emission of substances which cause acid rain.

4. Preventing Marine Pollution
 The government shall progressively implement the Convention on the 
Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter (
London Convention) and the Protocol of 1978 Relating to the 
International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (
MARPOL '73/'78) to combat marine pollution.  It shall take the 
initiative in new frameworks, such as, the United Nations Convention on 
the Law of the Sea and shall cooperate with other international 
organizations and related countries.  Furthermore, it shall promote the 
regional efforts of the Action Plan for the Prevention, Management and 
Development of the Marine and Coastal Environment of the Northwest 
Pacific Region.

5. Regulating Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Waste
 The Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of 
Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal shall be implemented.  Systems to 
prevent illegal transboundary movements of such waste shall be promoted 
as shall the transfer of toxic waste management technologies. 

6. Conserving Forests
 With regard to achieving the conservation and sustainable management of 
all types of forests, Japan shall base its efforts on the Statement of 
Forest Principles and Agenda 21, participating in the development of 
criteria and indicators for the sustainable forest management and other 
international efforts. Also, taking into account the developments in 
such organizations as the United Nations Committee for Sustainable 
Development, the International Tropical Timber Organization ("ITTO") and 
the General Agreements on Tariffs and Trade ("GATT"), Japan shall make 
efforts to enhance appropriate timber trade.  We shall take a positive 
stance on the possible formulation of a forest convention, taking into 
account the need for forming international consensus. We shall also 
promote international research activities on forest conservation.

7. Conserving Biodiversity
 Biological diversity and wildlife conservation shall be achieved and 
maintained according to the Convention on Biological Diversity.  
Biological diversity research and the cooperative establishment of a 
conservation system shall be promoted.  Further cooperation shall be 
elicited through international bilateral treaties and agreements, for 
example, aimed at bird conservation like the Convention on International 
Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (Washington 
Convention) and the Convention on Wetlands of International Importance 
Especially as Waterfowl Habitat (Ramsar Convention).   

8. Preventing Desertification
 Regarding desertification, Japan shall contribute to the United Nations 
Convention to Combat Desertification in Those Countries Experiencing 
Serious Drought and/or Desertification, particularly in Africa, which is 
expected to be ratifies in the near future.  It shall initiate research 
and investigations into mechanisms of desertification, interaction 
between desertification and human activities, and comprehensive 
countermeasures, taking into consideration complex socioeconomic factors.
 Japan shall also assist the measures by countries suffering from