Chapter 3.  Participation by All Sectors of Society Sharing Fair Burden

Basic Direction

 A society should be built where all sectors take part in activities for 
conservation of the environment.  In achieving this goal, it is 
essential to ensure that each sector and group, in various socioeconomic 
activities, understand the expected roles for environmental conservation 
and significance of their actions, share the fair burden, and act 
 Therefore, the roles of the national and local governments, 
corporations, people and private organizations, together with their 
roles expected in each socioeconomic area will be clarified.  Measures 
shall be implemented such as environmental education/learning, 
dissemination of relevant information, and other measures to promote 
actions on the part of corporations, people and private organizations, 
so as to encourage voluntary and mutually cooperative activities.
 In addition, the government shall take the lead in making its 
operations environmentally sound, which is expected as both consumer and 
 Each sector of society, each party, must assume its fair share of 
burden, according to the environmental load they generate, the benefits 
they enjoy and the capability they have to contribute to environmental 
conservation.  In so doing, it is indispensable that all parties 
recognize they generate environmental load, either directly or 
indirectly, through daily business activities or everyday living.  It is 
also important that each party takes responsible action, such as the 
polluter pays the implementing cost of various measures for 
environmental conservation, in line with the  Polluter Pays Principle 
advocated by the OECD etc. which requires that the cost of environmental 
use must be reflected in the price of goods and services.  This is the 
basic concept of environmental policy, upon which various measures shall 
be implemented accordingly.  It is also necessary that social fairness 
is ensured in both benefit and burden regarding the enjoyment and 
conservation of blessings of nature.

Section 1.  The Role of Each Sector

 The government shall promote efforts in accordance with the roles 
outlined below, with a view to coordinating voluntary affirmative 
efforts by other parties.  Local governments, companies, citizens and 
private organizations are expected to act voluntarily and actively 
according to their roles outlined below.

1.  The State
 The national government shall comprehensively promote efforts by 
society as a whole.  It shall present goals, courses of action and roles 
which must be played for environmental conservation and shall implement 
measures.  In addition, it shall establish the facilities necessary to 
assist each actor's efforts.  It shall promote active and voluntary 
participation by each party.  It shall also cooperate, join in other 
actors efforts and promote comprehensive environmental conservation 
 In addition to this Basic Environmental Plan, the government shall set 
goals for environmental conservation tailored to each problem, including 
the establishment of standards. Whenever required, it shall present 
policies and guidelines, based on law, setting appropriate ways to share 
roles and shaping the entire image of Japanese environmental policy.  

A. The national government shall provide the means necessary for each 
actor to carry out their duties.  For example, it shall implement 
environmental impact assessments, regulatory measures, economic measures.
  It shall, also, provide funding and promote scientific technology.
B. To encourage active and voluntary efforts on the part of companies, 
citizens and private organizations, the government shall promote 
environmental education and learning.  It shall likewise promote the 
support of private sector activities and the provision of access to 
C. The national government shall attempt to provide the necessary 
financing and/or technology for local governments which are 
independently adopting their own environmental conservation measures.
D. International efforts for global environmental conservation shall be 
E. The national government shall consider the environment when 
formulating and implementing policies which have the potential to cause 
environmental burden.
F. As both an consumer and enterprise, the government shall take the 
lead in conservation activities.

2. Local Governments
 The attainment of sustainable development depends greatly on regional 
environmental conservation.  Therefore, the role of local governments is 
crucial.  Local governments are expected, according to the region's 
social and natural characteristics, to set up and present goals and 
courses of action.  They should establish various systems, provide 
public facilities and promote voluntary activities.  Their environmental 
policies should including those following the directions of national 
policies and those meeting the characteristics of the areas.  They are 
expected to work in conjunction with the government, private citizens, 
companies and private organizations, to develop comprehensive regional 

A. To promote pollution prevention and recycling in regional planning as 
a matter of necessity to decrease environmental burdens tailored to the 
regions special characteristics.  A rich and plentiful environment 
should be ensured by conserving a natural environment and all of its 
B. To promote environmental conservation with the close cooperation of 
the business community and local citizens.  This means providing 
educational centers, information, environmental education in school.  It 
also means promoting the establishment of environmental training 
programs to ensure human resources and the introduction of environmental 
conservation measures aimed at companies.
C. To promote integrated environmental policies in cooperation with the 
national government and neighboring local governments.  For example, 
water resource management shall be conducted giving consideration to an 
entire river basin.
D. To promote measures for international cooperation, drawing on past 
experiences of other local governments in environmental conservation. 
F. To promote policies integratedly and systematically, for example, by 
formulating basic plans concerning regional environment conservation.
G. To take the lead in implementing environmental conservation efforts 
expected to corporations and consumers.
H. Municipalities should implement environmental conservation efforts 
through regional planning as rudimentary local bodies.  Prefectural 
governments shall promote wide ranging measures and coordination of 
measures implemented by municipalities.

3.  Corporations
 Corporations are responsible for a significant proportion of economy. 
Recently, the burden that normal business activities are causing on the 
environment is greatly increasing.  Therefore, it is necessary for 
corporations, actively and voluntarily, to reduce burdens generated by 
their activities.  This means taking measures to prevent pollution and 
actively engaging in conservation activities.  It also means taking 
affirmative efforts to develop environmental conservation business ("eco-
business,") as an essential ingredient for reaching a state of 
sustainable development with little environmental burden.
 The central and local governments also take part in production and 
consumption, and as such, have the same role as other corporations have.

A. To use materials and services with reduced environmental burden, such 
as recycled materials and streamlined physical distribution services.
B. To reduce environmental burden resulting from business activities, by 
reducing the emission of polluting materials, minimization and 
appropriate disposal of waste, improved energy efficiency, environmental 
consideration in development projects, and so on.
C. To contribute to the reduction of environmental burden generated 
during the whole life-cycle of products, by taking the environmental 
burden at all the stages into consideration in product design, providing 
information to consumers, reconsidering excessive packaging practices, 
and so on. (Life-cycle of a products means all the stages from material 
extraction, through production, distribution and consumption, to 
disposal.)  In addition, to contribute to appropriate waste disposal and 
other activities to reduce the environmental burden after they are used.
D. To participate in community conservation activities by tree-planting 
on corporate property, taking part in regional cleanup campaigns, and so 
E. To promote international cooperation, such as technology transfer, 
and to consider environmental factors in business activities overseas.
F. To promote investments and technological developments for 
environmental conservation and to develop business activities related to 
the environment.
G. To facilitate the employees' participation to environmental 
H. To promote environmental management, which consists of establishment 
of corporate policies on environmental conservation, target-setting, 
plan-making, organizational arrangement such as appointment of managers, 
and audit of the system. In doing this, discussion at  the International 
Standardizing Organization (ISO) should be taken into account. 
I. In addition to these, to contribute to national and local 
environmental policies.

4.  People
 Burdens inflicted on the environment through everyday activities are 
increasing.  Unless these activities are altered the situation will 
become more problematic.  Citizens shall be expected to voluntarily 
further their understanding of their relationship to the environment, to 
work to decrease the amount of burden that they are individually causing 
and to voluntarily work to improve their immediate surroundings.
 In promoting environmental policy, it is important to make best use of 
the knowledge and experience of women.  Cooperation between men and 
women shall be encouraged, in conjunction with other measures to improve 
the position of women in society.  Likewise, it is necessary to further 
our children's understanding of the environment, so that environmental 
conservation shall be ensured through the next generation.

A. To increase the chances to experience nature and learn about it.  
Such activities will further understanding about the relationship 
between people and the environment.
B. To reduce environmental burden caused by daily activities.  For 
example, people should choose environmentally friendly services and 
products, like recycled paper.  They should refrain from using their 
private automobiles when such use is neither necessary nor urgent.  They 
should also save electricity, reduce the amount of pollutants, such as 
detergent, they release, decrease total waste and cooperate in sorting 
waste for recycling purposes.
C. To participate in regional environmental conservation including 
regional recycling activities, environmental cleanup activities and 
activities to increase the amount of vegetation.  Additionally, citizens 
can participate in global environmental conservation by supporting the 
activities of private organizations.
D. To cooperate with the national and local governments in the 
implementation of their measures.

5. Private Organizations
 Private non-profit organizations play an important role in 
environmental conservation.  They enable organized, publicly beneficial 
actions between the citizens and companies which create them.  Their 
efforts include activities like recycling, education, research and tree 
planting.  These private organizations have the ability to engage in 
activities that range from domestic, grassroots activities to 
international, global activities.  The continued cooperation of these 
organizations is expected in various fields.

A. To promote grassroots activities of private organizations, directed 
at conserving the regional environment, like recycling, tree planting 
and the National Trust.  The cooperation of residents, companies and 
local governments should be promoted.
B. To promote international activities such as reforestation, wildlife 
conservation projects, pollution control and international friendship 
C. To promote environmental research into the state of the environment, 
the influence of pollution and the effectiveness of environmental 
measures, and so on.
D. To promote environmental education and learning and other activities 
to raise environmental awareness and encourage voluntary activities on 
the part of corporations and people.
E. To cooperate with the other sectors of society.

Section 2. Promoting Voluntary Actions by Each Participant

 To encourage voluntary actions by each and every member or group in 
society, the government shall promote environmental education and 
learning.  It shall likewise devise measures to encourage concrete 
environmental conservation efforts.  It shall promote the availability 
of information.

1. Promoting Environmental Education and Learning
 Each member of society must understand the role that they play and the 
responsibility that they share for environmental burdens, otherwise 
sustainable development will never be realized.  It is necessary that 
each be able to contribute in solving environmental problems and 
actively participate in environmental conservation.  Regardless of age, 
each member must cooperate in the effort to maintain a healthy and sound 
environment in the community, whether in school, at home, at work or 
outdoors.  Comprehensive education and voluntary learning shall be 
integratedly promoted.
 In this effort, people's history of burdening the environment and the 
aspects of culture which helped to create this burden, must be more 
deeply understood.  This cannot be accomplished by the mere transmission 
of knowledge and cold hard facts.  To gain a real understanding of and 
to truly realize the importance of nature, people must experience it 
firsthand.  In particular, the next generation, the youth in society, 
must be given the opportunity to experience the relationship between 
life and nature.  In this way, they will grow to appreciate, understand 
and show concern for this relationship.  Measures shall be improved to 
secure this understanding.

1.1. Environmental Education in School
 Environmental education in school, as a fundamental part of learning 
which lasts our entire life, is essential.  In elementary and high 
schools, the integration of environmental education in the curriculum in 
ethics classes and in special projects, shall be comprehensively 
promoted.  Young people, in particular, should be given the opportunity 
to develop a sense of value for nature through firsthand experience..  
Since this educational process is held to be so important, the 
opportunity to participate in activities where there is actual 
interaction with nature shall be affirmatively promoted. The government 
shall promote the training of teachers to improve their own 
understanding and perception of the environment, in order to increase 
their effectiveness in environmental education.  Education shall depend 
upon the pupils' level of development.  The government shall also take 
measures to improve and popularize teaching methods.  
 Textbooks made of recycled paper shall be promoted to give school 
children a concrete example of the advantages of recycling.  Companies 
are expected to voluntarily cooperate in efforts to increase the 
utilization of these books.  Likewise, the use of recycled paper in 
textbooks shall be promoted for those prepared by the government.
 Furthermore, the government shall promote provisions for environmental 
education in higher education, in an attempt to cultivate well-rounded 
and able leaders.

1.2. Environmental Education Outside of the Classroom
1.2.a. Improving Learning Facilities
 The government shall take measures to maintain environmental education 
and learning centers, where people can interact with nature.  
Coordination between these facilities shall also be promoted.

1.2.b. Offering Learning Opportunities
 In an continuing effort to offer a wide-range of learning opportunities,
 guidance lectures on the environment, nature observation outings and 
lessons on such wide ranging topics as star watching shall be sponsored.

1.2.c. Securing Human Resources
 In order to train, secure and apply human resources for leadership 
roles in environmental education, learning and conservation, measures 
shall be promoted to improve training and upgrade the registration 

1.2.d. Offering Educational Materials and Methods
 According to age and where the activity is held, whether it is a field 
trip, sightseeing or leisure, systematic programs, educational materials 
and procedures shall be developed and offered.

1.3. Public Relations Activities
 Placing Environment Day (June 5) at the core, various events shall be 
developed with cooperation from local governments and private 
organizations.  Similarly, applying various information mediums, public 
relations activities shall be improved.

2.  Promotion of Specific Activities to Conserve the Environment
2.1. Voluntary Environmental Management
 The government shall take measures to encourage corporations to 
implement voluntary environmental management, which consists of 
establishment of corporate policies on environmental conservation, 
target-setting, plan-making, organizational arrangement such as 
appointment of managers, and audit of the system. These measures shall 
include studies on the ways to encourage and support the establishment 
and certification of environmental management systems.

2.2. Rewarding Desirable Actions
 The government shall promote research into the methods of "Life-cycle 
assessment", which is a method to evaluate the environmental impacts 
along the continuum of a product life from raw material extraction to 
production, consumption and disposal ("cradle-to-grave). The government 
shall also appropriately supervise environmental labeling schemes to 
enhance the use of environmentally friendly products.  Similarly, 
citizens or private organization displaying exemplary behavior toward 
the environment, shall be officially rewarded. 

2.3. Supporting Private Organizations
 By making use of tax measures and other related systems, like the 
Global Environmental Fund, the government shall support the private 
organizations' activities like international environmental cooperation, 
education, learning, the National Trust, international partnership 
formation between organizations.  To support private organizations who 
are greatly beneficial to the public in their environmental conservation 
activities, measures will be examined on ways to bestow the status of 
legal entity on them.

3. Providing Information.
 Information on the state of the environment, burdens on it, measures 
for its conservation and on environmental education and learning 
opportunities shall be provided.  Databases shall be established and 
improved.  They shall network local governments and private 
organizations and provide information on locations where activities are 
taking place.
 Additionally, the measures provided in Chapter 4 Section 6 shall be 

Section  3.  Setting an Example by Government Action

 The government occupies very large proportion of the Japan's total 
economic activities.  Considerable environmental burdens could be 
eradicated by the Government's efforts to make its own normal activities 
environmentally friendly.  Moreover, the Government should lead the way 
in implementing these activities, if local governments, companies and 
private citizens are to be expected to do the same.  For this purpose, 
the Government as a whole shall establish an Action Program on its 
efforts in the following fields.

A.  Environmental consideration in procurement and/or utilization of 
goods and/or services
 For example, the use of recycled products such as paper, the 
introduction of low-emission vehicles, and efficient use of automobiles.
B. Environmental consideration in construction and/or management of 
  For example, utilization of solar and other clean energy sources, 
efficiency in  energy and water use, CFCs reduction and retraction, 
increasing the amount of vegetation around and on top of buildings, 
reusing and recycling of construction waste and by-products, and 
efficient use of tropical timber for molding.
C. Environmental consideration in office work
 For example, the reduction of energy use, separated waste collection 
for easy recycling and/or disposal, and waste reduction.
D. Giving training and information to the employees
 For example, revision of training programs on the environment, 
provision of information, and encouragement of conservation activities 
during vacations.

Section 4.  Efforts in Major Socioeconomic Sectors

 A coordinated and cooperative environmental conservation activities 
shall be promoted in various socioeconomic sectors.  These sectors 
include (1) the production, marketing, consumption and disposal of goods,
 (2) the supply and consumption of energy, and (3) traffic and 
transportation.  The role of each participant, with respect to these 
sectors, shall be outlined below.  Each participant, whether a private 
citizen, company or local government shall be expected to actively and 
voluntarily pursue actions accordingly.

1.  Production, Marketing, Consumption and Disposal of Goods
 Goods come from many different sources: from the forestry, agriculture, 
fishery, manufacturing, construction, mining etc.  In all these 
industries, the process of resource extraction and production can cause 
environmental burdens in the form of land alteration and discharges to 
the environment.  Similarly, waste and other forms of environmental 
burden are generated in the processes of marketing, consuming and 
disposing of goods.  On the other hand, forestry, agriculture and 
fishery have another aspect of industries making sound use of material 
cycle in nature, and if they are conducted appropriately they contribute 
to the maintenance of environmental conservation capacity of the land.
 To reduce the environmental burdens caused by these industries, 
environmentally friendly resource utilization and product manufacturing 
must be implemented.  Burdens resulting from the extraction and 
production of raw materials must be reduced.  Products which are derived 
from environmentally safe marketing and consumption process' must be 
encouraged.  Recycling and the appropriate disposal of waste must be 
promoted.  Natural resources must be conserved, while the resources of 
the forestry, agriculture and fishery industries must be properly 
managed.  Finally, the civil engineering and construction industry must 
embark upon projects which have taken the environment into consideration.

1.1. Producers
 Pollution control measures at production stage, taking into account 
other stages from resource extraction to disposal, should be promoted.  
These include (1) ensuring closed material circulation in resource 
utilization and manufacturing processes, (2) controlling generation and/
or properly disposing of waste and (3) encouraging products which are 
derived from environmentally safe marketing and consumption processes. 

1.1.a. Agriculture, Forestry and Fishery
 Unlike other industries, the agriculture, forestry and fishery 
industries production capacity is based upon natural material 
circulation.  These industries have important roles to play in 
conserving the environment.  Careful forest maintenance positively 
affects how the overall environment is maintained.  
 In the agricultural sector, regulations shall be set for pesticide and 
other chemical utilization.  For example, standards for these chemicals 
shall be revised, as will the criteria used to decide whether their 
utilization is necessary.  The recycling of domesticated animal manure 
should be promoted, as well as the conservation of ecosystems located on 
the periphery of agricultural land.
 In the forestry sector, sustainable forest management should be 
promoted.  Measures to ensure proper cutting in natural forests, the 
maintenance of conservation forest areas and the employment of 
appropriate forestry techniques such as indigenous wood and multiple 
layered forestry should be promoted.
 In the fishery sector, sustainable aquatic resource management should 
be promoted.  Aquaculture should be promoted and the conservation of 
good fishing waters, like those around tidelands and seaweed beds, shall 
be encouraged.

1.1.b. Mining
 When extracting resources, the environment should be given due 
consideration.  Beyond mere proper management, the reforestation of 
mining sites should be promoted.

1.1.c. Manufacturing
 The use of recycled materials should be promoted over their as yet 
unextracted natural counterparts.  The adoption of closed material 
circulation production methods should be promoted.  Waste generation 
should be controlled and its proper disposal promoted.  Longer lasting 
products should be developed and the environmental burden they inflict 
from consumption to disposal should be reduced.  Model changes in 
products or product lines should be implemented correctly.  The 
manufacturing industry should cooperate to ensure that products are 
appropriately handled and/or recycled after they have been discarded.

1.1.d. Construction
 With client cooperation, consideration should be given to the ecosystem 
when constructing buildings.  For example, buildings should utilize 
energy more efficiently by utilizing solar power, improving ventilation 
and by employing better insulating materials.  They should utilize water 
more conservatively.  Likewise, increasing the amount of vegetation in 
building landscapes and on building rooftops should be promoted as will 
the installation of consolidated purification handling tanks.  
 The construction industry shall be encouraged to strive to use 
environmentally friendly materials, to take on projects only after first 
considering the environment, to ensure that by-products created during 
construction are recycled and to practice proper disposal methods.

1.2. Sellers (Wholesale and Retail)
 The marketing of environmentally friendly products, not excluding real 
estate, should be promoted as will the reduction of excess packaging.  
Sellers should be encouraged to collect discarded and/or recyclable 
goods directly from consumers for proper handling.

1.3. Consumers
 When deciding what to buy, consumers should choose products that have 
either a neutral or a reduced impact on the environment.  They should 
refuse excessive packaging.  When ordering the construction of a 
building, consumers should demand an environmentally friendly building.  
Once built, consumers should ensure that it is being utilized in a 
manner which has little negative impact on the environment.  They should 
control waste generation and cooperate with collection systems by 
separating their garbage into that which is burnable and that which is 

1.4. Sanitation and Recycling Industries
 The sanitation and recycling industries have an important role to play 
in environmental conservation.  They should demand cooperation from 
their customers and should promote recycling and proper waste disposal.

1.5. The National and Local Governments
 Regulative measures concerning the emission of pollutants, disposal of 
waste and the use of agricultural chemicals shall be implemented by the 
national and local governments.  Likewise, guidance shall be provided to 
promote recycling and economic measures to encourage the control of 
waste generation and to promote recycling shall be employed as needed.  
Public facilities, such as waste disposal facilities, shall be 
 The national and local governments shall pursue methods of "life-cycle 
assessment."  They shall make information available and see that 
environmentally friendly products are recommended.  They shall provide 
guidance to the recycling and sanitation industries.  They shall, 
likewise, promote the reduced utilization of chemical fertilizers and 
 Local governments shall implement measures to ensure appropriate waste 
 Environmental impact assessments should be employed for public projects.
  The national and local governments should take the ecosystem into 
account and utilize clean energy, like solar power, when maintaining 
rivers, streams, farms, farming villages, fishing ports, harbors, roads, 
shorelines and airports.  They should also promote recycling and 
environmentally friendly resource utilization.

2.  Energy Supply and Consumption
 The supply and consumption of energy are essential elements found at 
every level of economic activity.  Much environmental burdens is 
generated in the process of both supplying and consuming it.  Energy use 
paradigms must be adopted to promote energy conservation and decrease 
such environmental burden.  Traffic and transportation shall be 
collectively discussed in the next subsection.

2.1. The Energy Supply Industry
 Environmental burden resulting from the activities of the energy supply 
industry should be reduced.  The efficiency of energy transformation 
should be upgraded (e.g. the generation of electricity should require 
less energy).  Natural gas utilization should be promoted.  The 
development and introduction of solar and wind power should, likewise, 
be promoted.  Moreover, the development and utilization of sources of 
energy which emit nominal amounts of carbon dioxide such as nuclear 
energy shall be encouraged.  Measures for radioactive waste handling and 
disposal, based on the Basic Nuclear Power Law, shall be carefully 
designed and implemented.  
 In cooperation with the demand side, dispersed power sources, such as 
cogenerators, should be introduced.  Until now untapped energy sources, 
such as heat discharged from sewage, should be utilized, as will heat 
resulting from waste incineration.

2.2. Industrial Energy Consumers
 The introduction of energy conserving facilities, the development of 
energy management systems and the efficient use of surplus energy 
outside of factories should be promoted in manufacturing industries.  
Likewise, the development and introduction of energy conserving products 
shall be encouraged.
 In the agricultural sector, natural energy utilization should be 
 Furthermore, appropriate planning, construction and management must be 
employed to prevent heat loss from buildings.  The introduction of solar 
power generators, fuel cells, cogenerators, energy conserving facilities 
and equipment should be promoted in offices.

2.3. Common Consumers
 The introduction of energy conserving devices, the prevention of energy 
waste and the utilization of energy efficient home appliances should be 
promoted.  Houses should receive better insulation to save heat.  
Likewise, the utilization of solar power in homes, for both power 
generation and for water heating should be promoted.

2.4. The National and Local Governments
 Regulative measures regarding pollution emission shall be carried out.  
Likewise, measures for improving energy use at the workplace and in the 
daily lives of citizens shall be promoted.  The national and local 
governments must invest in facilities that contribute to energy 
conservation.  They must also support technological development.  
Furthermore, they must examine the possibility of introducing daylight 
saving time.  
 Research and development into solar energy, fuel cells and other forms 
of clean energy shall be promoted and their introduction encouraged.  
Likewise, the introduction of dispersed power sources and utilization of 
until now untapped energy sources shall be promoted.

3.  Transportation and Traffic
 The process of moving people and goods is burdening the environment.  
It is necessary to decrease amount of environmental burdens generated by 
the various modes of transportation.  Burden from individual modes of 
transportation must be reduced and cleaner ones must be selected.  Cargo 
and passenger transport must be streamlined to improve traffic flow and 
conserve the environment.  

3.1. The Transportation Industry
 Efforts must be made to introduce automobiles with decreased emissions 
and to encourage the use of vehicles which meet the latest emissions 
 To streamline cargo transport, in conjunction with cargo owners, 
transportation should be joint and cargo on return trips should be 
secured.  Cargo facilities should be upgraded and proper utilization of 
these facilities should be promoted.  Rail and sea links located at 
points on major transportation routes should be utilized for hauling 
medium to long distance freight.
 Also, by enhancing the convenience of public transportation, like 
railroad and bus routes, passenger movement should be made more 
 Anti-noise pollution measures for planes and trains should be promoted.
 Measures to prevent ocean pollution created in sea transport should 
also be promoted.

3.2. Cargo Owners
 Efforts must be made to introduce vehicles with decreased emissions and 
to encourage the use of vehicles which meet the latest emissions 
 Transportation efficiency should be improved by promoting streamlined 
distribution patterns, improving information systems, promoting joint 
transportation and securing cargo for return trips.  Likewise, 
consideration should be given to coordinating transport with the 
transportation industry, including the utilization of business trucks.
 Furthermore, the utilization of cargo facilities should be promoted.  
For example, rail and sea links located at points on major 
transportation routes should be utilized for hauling medium to long 
distance freight.

3.3. Consumers
 Consumers should strive to select environmentally friendly means of 
transportation.  This means walking or riding a bicycle, when possible, 
and when not, utilizing public transportation.  Non-emergency and 
unnecessary use of private automobiles should be refrained from and, 
when used, they should be used appropriately.

3.4. The National and Local Governments
 Regulatory measures such as automobile emission controls and traffic 
controls shall be implemented.  Guidance shall also be provided to 
improve efficiency in automobile utilization.  Support shall 
simultaneously be given for the development and utilization of cars with 
low emissions.
 The national and local governments shall provide facilities for rail 
and sea transport.  They shall improve the convenience and maintenance 
of public modes of transportation.  They shall provide and improve 
facilities for pedestrians and bicycles.  In order to conserve the 
environment beside roadsides, they shall attempt to break-up and smooth 
the flow of traffic by providing by-passes and loops.  Finally, they 
shall encourage the improvement of the traffic control system and 
establishment of an information dissemination system.  
 In areas near roads, airports and other transportation facilities, anti-
noise pollution measures shall be promoted.  These measures should 
employ the use of natural sound barriers such as "green buffer belts" 
made of earth and vegetation.  

4.  Others
4.1. Tourism and Leisure Activities
 Tourism and leisure activities offer a tremendous opportunity for 
people to experience and enjoy nature.  However, such activities also 
have the potential to cause serious environmental burdens.

4.1.a. Resort Development, Travel and Related Industries
 Considerations for the natural environment shall be encouraged in all 
stages of resort development  This includes site selection, construction 
and administration.  Additionally, specialists should be trained in eco-
tourism, while the general population is simultaneously educated about 
it.  Information about the natural environment of resorts should be 
provided and efforts to increase tourists' opportunities to experience 
nature on their vacation should be promoted.

4.1.b. Visitors
 Measures to prevent littering and other environmentally burdening 
behavior should be promoted.  Efforts to increase visitor awareness and 
understanding about nature should also be promoted.

4.1.c. The National and Local Governments
 The national and local governments shall promote the proper 
administration of parks and other green spaces.  They should maintain 
tourist areas which emphasize nature and encourage leisure activities in 
nature and provide fundamental guidance and advice to ensure respect for 
the environment.

4.2. Financial Institutions
 Finance plays an important role in economic activities.  Moreover, 
providing capital to various enterprises can impact the environment 
tremendously.  Establishing accounts for donations and investments to 
fight environmental burdens should be promoted.
 A financial system should be considered in which the environmental 
impact of projects are reviewed when determining whether to finance or 
invest in certain projects.  Financial institutions shall be expected to 
provide environmental information to the generally information-poor 
small and medium size companies.  They are also expected to provide 
advice and counseling.

4.3. Others
 Other industries, not previously mentioned, are also expected to make 
voluntary efforts to conserve the environment.  Their efforts will 
depend upon whichever field their activities fall under: 1) the 
production, marketing, consumption and disposal of goods, 2) the supply 
and consumption of energy, or 3) traffic and transportation.
 The transmission of information should not only be used to enhance the 
flow of transportation, but to also reduce environmental burdens as a 
transportation substitute and a paper saving device.  Therefore, 
information correspondence systems should be more widely utilized and 
expanded.  The development of information systems and their relationship 
with the environment should be studied to determine if there are other 
ways the environment can be conserved.